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Abdulhaq A , Halboub E , Homeida HE , Kumar Basode V , Ghzwani AH , Zain KA , Baraniya D , Chen T , Al-Hebshi NN
Tongue microbiome in children with autism spectrum disorder
J Oral Microbiol. 2021 Jun 22;13(1) :1936434
PMID: 34211637    PMCID: PMC8221129    URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34211637
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Background: A few recent studies have characterized the salivary microbiome in association with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Here, we sought to assess if there is an association between the tongue microbiome and ASD. Methods: Tongue scrapping samples were obtained from 25 children with ASD and 38 neurotypical controls. The samples were sequenced for the 16S rRNA gene (V1-V3) and the resultant high-quality reads were assigned to the species-level using our previously described BLASTn-based algorithm. Downstream analyses of microbial profiles were conducted using QIIME, LEfSe, and R. Results: Independent of grouping, Prevotella, Streptococcus, Leptotrichia, Veillonella, Haemophilus and Rothia accounted for > 60% of the average microbiome. Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Rothia mucilaginosa, Prevotella melaninogenica and Neisseria flavescens/subflava were the most abundant species. Species richness and diversity did not significantly differ between the study groups. Thirteen species and three genera were differentially abundant between the two groups, e.g. enrichment of Actinomyces odontolyticus and Actinomyces lingnae and depletion of Campylobacter concisus and Streptococcus vestibularis in the ASD group. However, none of them withstood adjustment for multiple comparisons. Conclusion: The tongue microbiome of children with ASD was not significantly different from that of healthy control children, which is largely consistent with results from the literature.
2000-2297 Abdulhaq, Ahmed Halboub, Esam Orcid: 0000-0002-1894-470x Homeida, Husham E Kumar Basode, Vinod Ghzwani, Ahmad Hassn Zain, Khalid Ammash Baraniya, Divyashri Chen, Tsute Al-Hebshi, Nezar Noor Journal Article J Oral Microbiol. 2021 Jun 22;13(1):1936434. doi: 10.1080/20002297.2021.1936434.