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Jan M , Cueto R , Jiang X , Lu L , Sardy J , Xiong X , Yu JE , Pham H , Khan M , Qin X , Ji Y , Yang XF , Wang H
Molecular processes mediating hyperhomocysteinemia-induced metabolic reprogramming, redox regulation and growth inhibition in endothelial cells
Redox Biol. 2021 May 24;45 :102018
PMID: 34140262 PMCID: PMC8282538 URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34140262
AbstractHyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is an established and potent independent risk factor for degenerative diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), Alzheimer disease, type II diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease. HHcy has been shown to inhibit proliferation and promote inflammatory responses in endothelial cells (EC), and impair endothelial function, a hallmark for vascular injury. However, metabolic processes and molecular mechanisms mediating HHcy-induced endothelial injury remains to be elucidated. This study examined the effects of HHcy on the expression of microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA in human aortic EC treated with a pathophysiologically relevant concentration of homocysteine (Hcy 500 μM). We performed a set of extensive bioinformatics analyses to identify HHcy-altered metabolic and molecular processes. The global functional implications and molecular network were determined by Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) followed by Cytoscape analysis. We identified 244 significantly differentially expressed (SDE) mRNA, their relevant functional pathways, and 45 SDE miRNA. HHcy-altered SDE inversely correlated miRNA-mRNA pairs (45 induced/14 reduced mRNA) were discovered and applied to network construction using an experimentally verified database. We established a hypothetical model to describe the biochemical and molecular network with these specified miRNA/mRNA axes, finding: 1) HHcy causes metabolic reprogramming by increasing glucose uptake and oxidation, by glycogen debranching and NAD(+)/CoA synthesis, and by stimulating mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production via NNT/IDH2 suppression-induced NAD(+)/NADP-NADPH/NADP(+) metabolism disruption; 2) HHcy activates inflammatory responses by activating inflammasome-pyroptosis mainly through ↓miR193b→↑CASP-9 signaling and by inducing IL-1β and adhesion molecules through the ↓miR29c→↑NEDD9 and the ↓miR1256→↑ICAM-1 axes, as well as GPCR and interferon α/β signaling; 3) HHcy promotes cell degradation by the activation of lysosome autophagy and ubiquitin proteasome systems; 4) HHcy causes cell cycle arrest at G1/S and S/G2 transitions, suppresses spindle checkpoint complex and cytokinetic abscission, and suppresses proliferation through ↓miRNA335/↑VASH1 and other axes. These findings are in accordance with our previous studies and add a wealth of heretofore-unexplored molecular and metabolic mechanisms underlying HHcy-induced endothelial injury. This is the first study to consider the effects of HHcy on both global mRNA and miRNA expression changes for mechanism identification. Molecular axes and biochemical processes identified in this study are useful not only for the understanding of mechanisms underlying HHcy-induced endothelial injury, but also for discovering therapeutic targets for CVD in general.
Notes2213-2317 Jan, Michael Cueto, Ramon Jiang, Xiaohua Lu, Liu Sardy, Jason Xiong, Xinyu Yu, Justine E Pham, Hung Khan, Mohsin Qin, Xuebing Ji, Yong Yang, Xiao-Feng Wang, Hong Journal Article Netherlands Redox Biol. 2021 May 24:102018. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2021.102018.