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Santerre M , Arjona SP , Allen CN , Callen S , Buch S , Sawaya BE
HIV-1 Vpr protein impairs lysosome clearance causing SNCA/alpha-synuclein accumulation in neurons
Autophagy. 2021 Jul;17(7) :1768-1782
PMID: 33890542 PMCID: PMC8354668 URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33890542
AbstractDespite the promising therapeutic effects of combinatory antiretroviral therapy (cART), 20% to 30% of HIV/AIDS patients living with long term infection still exhibit related cognitive and motor disorders. Clinical studies in HIV-infected patients revealed evidence of basal ganglia dysfunction, tremors, fine motor movement deficits, gait, balance, and increased risk of falls. Among older HIV(+) adults, the frequency of cases with SNCA/α-synuclein staining is higher than in older healthy persons and may predict an increased risk of developing a neurodegenerative disease. The accumulation of SNCA aggregates known as Lewy Bodies is widely described to be directly linked to motor dysfunction. These aggregates are naturally removed by Macroautophagy/autophagy, a cellular housekeeping mechanism, that can be disturbed by HIV-1. The molecular mechanisms involved in linking HIV-1 proteins and autophagy remain mostly unclear and necessitates further exploration. We showed that HIV-1 Vpr protein triggers the accumulation of SNCA in neurons after decreasing lysosomal acidification, deregulating lysosome positioning, and the expression levels of several proteins involved in lysosomal maturation. Viruses and retroviruses such as HIV-1 are known to manipulate autophagy in order to use it for their replication while blocking the degradative final step, which could destroy the virus itself. Our study highlights how the suppression of neuronal autophagy by HIV-1 Vpr is a mechanism leading to toxic protein aggregation and neurodegeneration.
Notes1554-8635 Santerre, Maryline Arjona, Sterling P Allen, Charles Ns Callen, Shannon Orcid: 0000-0001-6241-3335 Buch, Shilpa Orcid: 0000-0002-3103-6685 Sawaya, Bassel E Journal Article United States Autophagy. 2021 Apr 23:1-15. doi: 10.1080/15548627.2021.1915641.