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Bibeau JP , Galotto G , Wu M , Tüzel E , Vidali L
Quantitative cell biology of tip growth in moss
Plant Mol Biol. 2021 Apr 6
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Here we review, from a quantitative point of view, the cell biology of protonemal tip growth in the model moss Physcomitrium patens. We focus on the role of the cytoskeleton, vesicle trafficking, and cell wall mechanics, including reviewing some of the existing mathematical models of tip growth. We provide a primer for existing cell biological tools that can be applied to the future study of tip growth in moss. Polarized cell growth is a ubiquitous process throughout the plant kingdom in which the cell elongates in a self-similar manner. This process is important for nutrient uptake by root hairs, fertilization by pollen, and gametophyte development by the protonemata of bryophytes and ferns. In this review, we will focus on the tip growth of moss cells, emphasizing the role of cytoskeletal organization, cytoplasmic zonation, vesicle trafficking, cell wall composition, and dynamics. We compare some of the existing knowledge on tip growth in protonemata against what is known in pollen tubes and root hairs, which are better-studied tip growing cells. To fully understand how plant cells grow requires that we deepen our knowledge in a variety of forms of plant cell growth. We focus this review on the model plant Physcomitrium patens, which uses tip growth as the dominant form of growth at its protonemal stage. Because mosses and vascular plants shared a common ancestor more than 450 million years ago, we anticipate that both similarities and differences between tip growing plant cells will provide mechanistic information of tip growth as well as of plant cell growth in general. Towards this mechanistic understanding, we will also review some of the existing mathematical models of plant tip growth and their applicability to investigate protonemal morphogenesis. We attempt to integrate the conclusions and data across cell biology and physical modeling to our current state of knowledge of polarized cell growth in P. patens and highlight future directions in the field.
1573-5028 Bibeau, Jeffrey P Galotto, Giulia Wu, Min Tüzel, Erkan Vidali, Luis Orcid: 0000-0002-5835-4587 MCB-1253444/Directorate for Biological Sciences/ 1R15GM134493/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States Journal Article Review Netherlands Plant Mol Biol. 2021 Apr 6. doi: 10.1007/s11103-021-01147-7.