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Miller AL , Bessho S , Grando K , Tükel Ç
Microbiome or Infections: Amyloid-Containing Biofilms as a Trigger for Complex Human Diseases
Front Immunol. 2021 ;12 :638867
PMID: 33717189    PMCID: PMC7952436   
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The human microbiota is the community of microorganisms that live upon or within their human host. The microbiota consists of various microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and archaea; the gut microbiota is comprised mostly of bacteria. Many bacterial species within the gut microbiome grow as biofilms, which are multicellular communities embedded in an extracellular matrix. Studies have shown that the relative abundances of bacterial species, and therefore biofilms and bacterial byproducts, change during progression of a variety of human diseases including gastrointestinal, autoimmune, neurodegenerative, and cancer. Studies have shown the location and proximity of the biofilms within the gastrointestinal tract might impact disease outcome. Gram-negative enteric bacteria secrete the amyloid curli, which makes up as much as 85% of the extracellular matrix of enteric biofilms. Curli mediates cell-cell attachment and attachment to various surfaces including extracellular matrix components such as fibronectin and laminin. Structurally, curli is strikingly similar to pathological and immunomodulatory human amyloids such as amyloid-β, which has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease, α-synuclein, which is involved in Parkinson's disease, and serum amyloid A, which is secreted during the acute phase of inflammation. The immune system recognizes both bacterial amyloid curli and human amyloids utilizing the same receptors, so curli also induces inflammation. Moreover, recent work indicates that curli can participate in the self-assembly process of pathological human amyloids. Curli is found within biofilms of commensal enteric bacteria as well as invasive pathogens; therefore, evidence suggests that curli contributes to complex human diseases. In this review, we summarize the recent findings on how bacterial biofilms containing curli participate in the pathological and immunological processes in gastrointestinal diseases, systemic autoimmune diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases.
1664-3224 Miller, Amanda L Bessho, Shingo Grando, Kaitlyn Tükel, Çagla Journal Article Review Front Immunol. 2021 Feb 26;12:638867. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.638867. eCollection 2021.