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Shetty M , Noguchi C , Wilson S , Martinez E , Shiozaki K , Sell C , Mell JC , Noguchi E
Maf1-dependent transcriptional regulation of tRNAs prevents genomic instability and is associated with extended lifespan
Aging Cell. 2020 Feb;19(2) :e13068
PMID: 31833215    PMCID: PMC6996946    URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31833215
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Maf1 is the master repressor of RNA polymerase III responsible for transcription of tRNAs and 5S rRNAs. Maf1 is negatively regulated via phosphorylation by the mTOR pathway, which governs protein synthesis, growth control, and lifespan regulation in response to nutrient availability. Inhibiting the mTOR pathway extends lifespan in various organisms. However, the downstream effectors for the regulation of cell homeostasis that are critical to lifespan extension remain elusive. Here we show that fission yeast Maf1 is required for lifespan extension. Maf1's function in tRNA repression is inhibited by mTOR-dependent phosphorylation, whereas Maf1 is activated via dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase complexes, PP4 and PP2A. Mutational analysis reveals that Maf1 phosphorylation status influences lifespan, which is correlated with elevated tRNA and protein synthesis levels in maf1 cells. However, mTOR downregulation, which negates protein synthesis, fails to rescue the short lifespan of maf1 cells, suggesting that elevated protein synthesis is not a cause of lifespan shortening in maf1 cells. Interestingly, maf1 cells accumulate DNA damage represented by formation of Rad52 DNA damage foci and Rad52 recruitment at tRNA genes. Loss of the Rad52 DNA repair protein further exacerbates the shortened lifespan of maf1 cells. Strikingly, PP4 deletion alleviates DNA damage and rescues the short lifespan of maf1 cells even though tRNA synthesis is increased in this condition, suggesting that elevated DNA damage is the major cause of lifespan shortening in maf1 cells. We propose that Maf1-dependent inhibition of tRNA synthesis controls fission yeast lifespan by preventing genomic instability that arises at tRNA genes. Aging Cell. 2020 Feb;19(2):e13068. doi: 10.1111/acel.13068. Epub 2019 Dec 12.
Export Date: 2 January 2020