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Al-Kamel A , Baraniya D , Al-Hajj WA , Halboub E , Abdulrab S , Chen T , Al-Hebshi NN
Subgingival microbiome of experimental gingivitis: shifts associated with the use of chlorhexidine and N-acetyl cysteine mouthwashes
J Oral Microbiol. 2019 ;11(1) :1608141
PMID: 31275528    PMCID: PMC6598494   
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This study aimed to demonstrate subgingival microbial changes associated with development, prevention, and treatment of experimental gingivitis using chlorhexidine (CHX) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) mouthwashes. This randomized clinical trial comprised two parts: a 3-week prevention sub-study in which 30 study subjects were equally assigned to either mouthwash or placebo while developing experimental gingivitis; followed by a 2-week treatment sub-study in which 20 subjects with experimental gingivitis were assigned to either mouthwash. Subgingival samples were collected at the beginning and end of each sub-study for microbial profiling with 16S rRNA gene sequencing. As expected, CHX was effective in both preventing and reversing experimental gingivitis; NAC had a modest effect. Gingivitis was associated with enrichment of TM7 HOT-346/349, Tannerella HOT-286, Cardiobacterium valvarum, Campylobacter gracilis, Porphyromonas catoniae, Leptotrichia HOT-219, and Selen o monas spp. At the phylum/genus level, TM7 showed the strongest association. Gingival health was associated with increased abundance of Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Lautropia mirabilis, Rothia spp., Streptococcus spp., and Kingella oralis. CHX demonstrated largely indiscriminate antimicrobial action, resulting in significant drop in biomass and diversity. Our results substantiate the role of specific oral bacterial species in the development of gingivitis. They also indicate that NAC is not a promising mouthwash at the concentration tested.
Al-Kamel, Ahlam Baraniya, Divyashri Al-Hajj, Wadhah Abdulnaser Halboub, Esam Orcid: 0000-0002-1894-470x Abdulrab, Saleem Orcid: 0000-0003-0419-2612 Chen, Tsute Al-Hebshi, Nezar Noor Journal Article United States J Oral Microbiol. 2019 Jun 24;11(1):1608141. doi: 10.1080/20002297.2019.1608141. eCollection 2019.