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Mitchell TC , Hamid O , Smith DC , Bauer TM , Wasser JS , Olszanski AJ , Luke JJ , Balmanoukian AS , Schmidt EV , Zhao Y , Gong X , Maleski J , Leopold L , Gajewski TF
Epacadostat Plus Pembrolizumab in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors: Phase I Results From a Multicenter, Open-Label Phase I/II Trial (ECHO-202/KEYNOTE-037)
J Clin Oncol. 2018 Sep 28;36(32) :3223-3230
PMID: 30265610    PMCID: PMC6225502    URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30265610
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PURPOSE: Tumors may evade immunosurveillance through upregulation of the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) enzyme. Epacadostat is a potent and highly selective IDO1 enzyme inhibitor. The open-label phase I/II ECHO-202/KEYNOTE-037 trial evaluated epacadostat plus pembrolizumab, a programmed death protein 1 inhibitor, in patients with advanced solid tumors. Phase I results on maximum tolerated dose, safety, tolerability, preliminary antitumor activity, and pharmacokinetics are reported. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients received escalating doses of oral epacadostat (25, 50, 100, or 300 mg) twice per day plus intravenous pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg or 200 mg every 3 weeks. During the safety expansion, patients received epacadostat (50, 100, or 300 mg) twice per day plus pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks. RESULTS: Sixty-two patients were enrolled and received one or more doses of study treatment. The maximum tolerated dose of epacadostat in combination with pembrolizumab was not reached. Fifty-two patients (84%) experienced treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs), with fatigue (36%), rash (36%), arthralgia (24%), pruritus (23%), and nausea (21%) occurring in >/= 20%. Grade 3/4 TRAEs were reported in 24% of patients. Seven patients (11%) discontinued study treatment because of TRAEs. No TRAEs led to death. Epacadostat 100 mg twice per day plus pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks was recommended for phase II evaluation. Objective responses (per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [RECIST] version 1.1) occurred in 12 (55%) of 22 patients with melanoma and in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, endometrial adenocarcinoma, urothelial carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. The pharmacokinetics of epacadostat and pembrolizumab and antidrug antibody rate were comparable to historical controls for monotherapies. CONCLUSION: Epacadostat in combination with pembrolizumab generally was well tolerated and had encouraging antitumor activity in multiple advanced solid tumors.
1527-7755 Mitchell, Tara C Hamid, Omid Smith, David C Bauer, Todd M Wasser, Jeffrey S Olszanski, Anthony J Luke, Jason J Balmanoukian, Ani S Schmidt, Emmett V Zhao, Yufan Gong, Xiaohua Maleski, Janet Leopold, Lance Gajewski, Thomas F Journal Article United States J Clin Oncol. 2018 Sep 28:JCO2018789602. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2018.78.9602.