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Burton LJ , Hawsawi O , Loyd Q , Henderson V , Howard S , Harlemon M , Ragin C , Roberts R , Bowen N , Gacii A , Odero-Marah V
Association of Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition with prostate and breast health disparities
PLoS One. 2018 ;13(9) :e0203855
PMID: 30199553    PMCID: PMC6130866   
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Abstract
African Americans (AA) have higher death rates due to prostate and breast cancer as compared to Caucasian Americans (CA), and few biomarkers have been associated with this disparity. In our study we investigated whether epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) with a focus on Snail and Cathepsin L (Cat L), could potentially be two markers associated with prostate and breast health disparities. We have previously shown that Snail can increase Cat L protein and activity in prostate and breast cancer. Western blot and real-time PCR analyses showed that mesenchymal protein expression (Snail, vimentin, Cat L) and Cat L activity (shown by zymography) was higher in AA prostate cancer cells as compared to CA normal transformed RWPE-1 prostate epithelial cells, and androgen-dependent cells, and comparable to metastatic CA cell lines. With respect to breast cancer, mesenchymal markers were higher in TNBC compared to non-TNBC cells. The higher mesenchymal marker expression was functionally associated with higher proliferative and migratory rates. Immunohistochemistry showed that both nuclear Snail and Cat L expression was significantly higher in cancer compared to normal for CA and Bahamas prostate patient tissue. Interestingly, AA normal tissue stained higher for nuclear Snail and Cat L that was not significantly different to cancer tissue for both prostate and breast tissue, but was significantly higher than CA normal tissue. AA TNBC tissue also displayed significantly higher nuclear Snail expression compared to CA TNBC, while no significant differences were observed with Luminal A cancer tissue. Therefore, increased EMT in AA compared to CA that may contribute to the more aggressive disease.
Notes
1932-6203 Burton, Liza J Hawsawi, Ohuod Loyd, Quentin Henderson, Veronica Howard, Simone Harlemon, Maxine Ragin, Camille ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0816-4942 Roberts, Robin Bowen, Nathan ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1609-6698 Gacii, Andrew Odero-Marah, Valerie ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5238-9914 Journal Article United States PLoS One. 2018 Sep 10;13(9):e0203855. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0203855. eCollection 2018.