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Li JG , Barrero C , Merali S , Pratico D
Five lipoxygenase hypomethylation mediates the homocysteine effect on Alzheimer's phenotype
Sci Rep. 2017 Apr 6;7 :46002
PMID: 28383037    PMCID: PMC5382538   
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Environmental and genetic risk factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, how they interact and influence its pathogenesis remains to be investigated. High level of homocysteine (Hcy) is an AD risk factor and associates with an up-regulation of the ALOX5 gene. In the current paper we investigated whether this activation is responsible for the Hcy effect on the AD phenotype and the mechanisms involved. Triple transgenic mice were randomized to receive regular chow diet, a diet deficient in folate and B vitamins (Diet), which results in high Hcy, or the Diet plus zileuton, a specific ALOX5 inhibitor, for 7 months. Compared with controls, Diet-fed mice had a significant increase in Hcy levels, memory and learning deficits, up-regulation of the ALOX5 pathway, increased Abeta levels, tau phosphorylation, and synaptic pathology, which were absent in mice treated with zileuton. In vivo and vitro studies demonstrated that the mechanism responsible was the hypomethylation of the ALOX5 promoter. Our findings demonstrate that the up-regulation of the ALOX5 is responsible for the Hcy-dependent worsening of the AD phenotype in a relevant mouse model of the disease. The discovery of this previously unknown cross-talk between these two pathways could afford novel therapeutic opportunities for treating or halting AD.
2045-2322 Li, Jian-Guo Barrero, Carlos Merali, Salim Pratico, Domenico R01 HL112966/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United States RF1 AG051684/AG/NIA NIH HHS/United States Journal Article England Sci Rep. 2017 Apr 6;7:46002. doi: 10.1038/srep46002.