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Checkpoint inhibitors for renal cell carcinoma: current landscape and future directions
Immunotherapy. 2016 Jun;8(7) :785-98
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Immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors has arrived and begun to change the landscape of clinical oncology, including for patients with renal cell carcinoma. Specifically, drugs targeting the programmed death 1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen pathways have demonstrated remarkable responses for patients in clinical trials. In this article, we review the most recent available data for immune checkpoint inhibitors for patients with renal cell carcinoma. We discuss potential strategies for rational combination therapies in these patients, some of which are currently being studied, and address important future considerations for use of these novel agents in the years to come.
Zibelman, Matthew Ghatalia, Pooja Geynisman, Daniel M Plimack, Elizabeth R England Immunotherapy. 2016 Jun;8(7):785-98. doi: 10.2217/imt-2016-0028.