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Hamilton RJ , Ding K , Crook JM , O'Callaghan CJ , Higano CS , Dearnaley DP , Horwitz EM , Goldenberg SL , Gospodarowicz MK , Klotz L
The Association Between Statin Use and Outcomes in Patients Initiating Androgen Deprivation Therapy
Eur Urol. 2021 Apr;79(4) :446-452
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Abstract
BACKGROUND: Studies have conflicting results regarding the association between statin use and biochemical recurrence for prostate cancer (PCa). A limited number of studies examining statins in advanced stages report positive results, with a few specifically examining statins and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). OBJECTIVE: To perform a post hoc secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of men initiating ADT to examine the association between statin use and outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >3 ng/ml >1 yr following primary/salvage radiotherapy were enrolled in an RCT of intermittent androgen deprivation (IAD) versus continuous ADT (NCT00003653). Baseline and on-study statin use was modelled as a time-dependent covariate. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The primary endpoint was overall survival. Models were adjusted for age, time from radiotherapy to ADT, baseline PSA, and prior ADT. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Of 1364 patients, statin users (585; 43%) were younger (72.7 vs 73.8 yr, p = 0.001) and less likely to have PSA >15 ng/ml (20% vs 25%, p = 0.04). After a median follow-up of 6.9 yr, statin use was associated with reduced overall (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.53-0.78, p < 0.001) and PCa-specific (HR: 0.65, 95% CI 0.48-0.87, p = 0.004) mortality. Statin users had 13% longer time to castration resistance, but this did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.15). As an exploratory endpoint, in the IAD arm, statin users had longer time off treatment (median: 0.85 vs 0.64 yr, p = 0.06). Limitations include potential for residual confounding between statin users and nonusers, and confounding by indication. CONCLUSIONS: In men treated with ADT following primary or salvage radiotherapy, statin use was associated with improved overall and PCa-specific survival. In patients treated with IAD, statin use was associated with a trend towards longer time off treatment. A prospective trial of statins in men commencing ADT is warranted. PATIENT SUMMARY: We found a favourable association between statin use and survival outcomes in patients initiating androgen deprivation therapy.
Notes
1873-7560 Hamilton, Robert J Ding, Keyue Crook, Juanita M O'Callaghan, Christopher J Higano, Celestia S Dearnaley, David P Horwitz, Eric M Goldenberg, S Larry Gospodarowicz, Mary K Klotz, Laurence Journal Article Switzerland Eur Urol. 2020 Dec 31:S0302-2838(20)31017-4. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2020.12.031.