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Lee JJ, Natsuizaka M, Ohashi S, Wong GS, Takaoka M, Michaylira CZ, Budo D, Tobias JW, Kanai M, Shirakawa Y, Naomoto Y, Klein-Szanto AJ, Haase VH, Nakagawa H
Hypoxia activates the cyclooxygenase-2-prostaglandin E synthase axis
Carcinogenesis (2010) 31:427-434.
Abstract
Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), in particular HIF-1 alpha, have been implicated in tumor biology. However, HIF target genes in the esophageal tumor microenvironment remain elusive. Gene expression profiling was performed upon hypoxia-exposed non-transformed immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells, EPC2-hTERT, and comparing with a gene signature of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In addition to known HIF-1 alpha target genes such as carbonic anhydrase 9, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES) was identified as a novel target gene among the commonly upregulated genes in ESCC as well as the cells exposed to hypoxia. The PTGES induction was augmented upon stabilization of HIF-1 alpha by hypoxia or cobalt chloride under normoxic conditions and suppressed by dominant-negative HIF-1 alpha. Whereas PTGES messenger RNA (mRNA) was negatively regulated by normoxia, PTGES protein remained stable upon reoxygenation. Prostaglandin E-2 (PGE(2)) biosynthesis was documented in transformed human esophageal cells by ectopic expression of PTGES as well as RNA interference directed against PTGES. Moreover, hypoxia stimulated PGE(2) production in a HIF-1 alpha-dependent manner. In ESCC, PTGES was overexpressed frequently at the mRNA and protein levels. Finally, COX-2 and PTGES were colocalized in primary tumors along with HIF-1 alpha and IGFBP3. Activation of the COX-2-PTGES axis in primary tumors was further corroborated by concomitant upregulation of interleukin-1 beta and downregulation of hydroxylprostaglandin dehydrogenase. Thus, PTGES is a novel HIF-1 alpha target gene, involved in prostaglandin E biosynthesis in the esophageal tumor hypoxic microenvironment, and this has implications in diverse tumors types, especially of squamous origin.
Note
Publication Date: 2010-03-01.
PMCID: PMC2832548 (available on 3/1/2010)
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