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Hudes G, Haas N, Yeslow G, Gillon T, Gunnarsson PO, Ellman M, Nordle O, Eriksson B, Miller L, Cisar L, Kopreski M, Viaro D, Hartley-Asp B
Phase I clinical and pharmacologic trial of intravenous estramustine phosphate
J Clin Oncol (2002) 20:1115-27.
Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine the dose-limiting toxicities, maximum-tolerated dose, and pharmacokinetics of intravenous estramustine phosphate (IV EMP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 31 patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer received IV EMP as a 30- to 90-minute infusion weekly (n = 28) or for 3 consecutive days followed by a single weekly dose (n = 3). IV EMP dose was escalated from 500 to 3,000 mg/m(2). Pharmacokinetics of EMP and the metabolites estramustine (EaM), estromustine (EoM), estradiol, and estrone were assessed after weeks 1 and 4 of treatment. RESULTS: The initial IV EMP infusion caused perineal discomfort that was ameliorated by lengthening the infusion time. Other common toxicities were grade 1 to 2 hepatotoxicity, nausea or vomiting, and fatigue or malaise. Lower-extremity thrombosis occurred in one patient, and two others developed upper-extremity thrombosis associated with venous infusion catheters. Dose-limiting fatigue and hypotension occurred at 3,000 mg/m(2), and cumulative fatigue developed after multiple cycles at 2,500 mg/m(2). Mean EMP clearance, estimated steady-state volume of distribution, and elimination half-life were 3.7 L/h, 10.6 L, and 3.7 hours, respectively. Variability of EMP clearance was 21%, and variation in area under the curve per dose for the metabolites was 28% to 36%. Elimination half-lives of EoM and EaM were 110 hours and 64 hours, and peak plasma concentrations of these active metabolites exceeded 10 micromol/L after IV EMP doses greater-than-or-equal 2,000 mg/m(2). CONCLUSION: High-dose IV EMP can be administered safely as a weekly short infusion to patients with HRPC. High peak concentrations of active metabolites after IV EMP may provide an advantage over oral EMP in antimicrotubule drug combinations.
Note
Publication Date: 2002-02-15.
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