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Balogh GA, Russo IH, Spittle C, Heulings R, Russo J
Immune-surveillance and programmed cell death-related genes are significantly overexpressed in the normal breast epithelium of postmenopausal parous women
International Journal of Oncology (2007) 31:303-312.
Endocrine and reproductive influences significantly affect the lifetime risk of breast cancer. Nulliparity is one of the most firmly established risk factors for breast cancer, whereas early full-term pregnancy and parity confer a significant protection. The breast attains its maximum development during pregnancy and lactation. After menopause the breast regresses in both nulliparous and parous women containing lobular structures designated lobules type 1 (Lob 1). We have postulated that the degree of differentiation acquired through early preanancy changes the 'genomic signature' that differentiates the Lob 1 from the early parous women from that of the nulliparous women by shifting the Stem cell 1 to a Stem cell 2, making this the mechanism of protection conferred by early full-term pregnancy. In order to elucidate the molecular pathways through which pregnancy exerts a protective effect, we have analyzed the genomic profile of Lob 1 present in reduction mammoplasty spe!
Publication Date: 2007-08-01.
Last updated on Thursday, July 16, 2020