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Badawi AF, Eldeen MB, Liu Y, Ross EA, Badr MZ
Inhibition of rat mammary gland carcinogenesis by simultaneous targeting of cyclooxygenase-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
Cancer Research (2004) 64:1181-9.
Abstract
We examined the effect of celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, and N-(9-fluorenyl-methyloxycarbonyl)-L-leucine (F-L-Leu), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) agonist, separately and combined, on the development of methylnitrosourea (MNU)-induced rat mammary gland carcinogenesis. Celecoxib and F-L-Leu significantly reduced tumor incidence and multiplicity (P < 0.05). Combining both agents exerted higher (synergistic) cancer inhibition than separate treatments (P < 0.05). The effects of the test drugs on COX-2 and PPAR gamma expression and on the synthesis of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) were examined in rat mammary normal (MNU-untreated), uninvolved, and tumor (MNU-treated) tissues. Celecoxib and F-L-Leu, separately, inhibited COX-2 and up-regulated PPAR gamma expression. These effects were paralleled by inhibition of PGE(2) synthesis and up-regulation of 15d-PGJ(2). Combined treatment resulted in higher alterations in COX-2 and PPAR gamma transcripts and PG synthesis compared with separate administrations. The effect of the test agents on Bcl(2), BAX, and protein kinase C alpha expression levels were examined in the rat mammary gland and the pro-(BAX:Bcl(2)) and anti-[PKC alpha*(Bcl(2)/BAX)] apoptotic ratios were evaluated. Each drug increased the proapoptotic ratio by 2- to 7-fold and reduced the antiapoptotic ratio by 2- to >8-fold in all tissues. Combined treatment, however, resulted in >9- to 14-fold up-regulation in the proapoptotic processes and 15- to >30-fold down-regulation in the antiapoptotic ones. Analyses were also carried out on the drug-induced modulation of cell cycle regulators and proliferation markers (cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen). F-L-Leu and celecoxib each reduced the cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in the tumor. Higher down-regulation was attained in all tissues by combined treatment where cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen almost retained the expression levels observed in the normal glands. In conclusion, simultaneous targeting of COX-2 and PPAR gamma may inhibit mammary cancer development more effectively than targeting each molecule alone. COX-2 inhibitors and PPAR gamma agonists coordinately mediate their anticancer effect via both COX-dependent (inhibition of COX-2, activation of PPAR gamma, and modulation PG synthesis) and COX-independent (induction of proapoptotic factors and inhibition of cell proliferation) pathways.
Note
Publication Date: 2004-02-01.
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