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Astrin SM, Laurence J
Human immunodeficiency virus activates c-myc and Epstein-Barr virus in human B lymphocytes
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (1992) 651:422-432.
Abstract
We have established a line of malignantly transformed human B cells by infecting purified primary B lymphocytes with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). This line, termed B-HIV1, may serve as a model system for a subset of AIDS-related B-cell lymphomas in which the transformed phenotype may be initiated and/or maintained through an HIV-1 gene product. The B-HIV1 line contains both Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and HIV-1 genomes. In addition, the c-myc gene is expressed at levels 10 to 20 times those in normal B cells. Similarly, EBV sequences, including those for the latent membrane protein (LMP), are expressed at greatly enhanced levels relative to expression in normal, EBV-immortalized B cells. The upregulation of c-myc and of EBV gene expression can both be produced by infection of susceptible B cells (not already harboring HIV) with exogenous HIV-1. The B-HIV1 line exhibits properties of malignantly transformed cells, in that it grows logarithmically in 1% serum, clones in soft agar, and produces invasive, malignant B-cell lymphomas in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. We have shown that HIV-1 has the ability to infect primary human B cells and to activate expression of EBV and c-myc. HIV activation of EBV has been documented previously in certain cell lines; here we note that such activation can occur in primary B cells and, under certain conditions, can result in outgrowth of immortalized cell lines. This phenomenon may contribute to the clinical manifestation of lymphadenopathy early after infection with HIV. In addition, we have demonstrated that HIV infection of primary B cells in vitro can result in appearance of a fully malignant phenotype. This phenotype is likely to be due, at least in part, to the activation of c-myc by HIV. Preliminary experiments indicate that Tat, the gene product of the transactivator of viral gene transcription tat, can upregulate c-myc transcription after addition to the culture media of certain B-cell lines. This raises the possibility that Tat can bind to target sequences in cellular RNA and enhance transcription as it does for HIV. It also raises the possibility that a necessary, but perhaps not sufficient, component for the expression of the malignant phenotype in certain AIDS-related lymphomas may be the presence and expression of the Tat gene product of HIV. Although published data would appear to rule out the presence of intact HIV genomes in the majority of AIDS-related lymphomas, the possibility of the presence of highly defective viral genomes has not been addressed.
Note
Publication Date: 1992-01-01.
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