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Chung W, Kelly AD, Kropf P, Fung H, Jelinek J, Su XY, Roboz GJ, Kantarjian HM, Azab M, Issa JJ
Genomic and epigenomic predictors of response to guadecitabine in relapsed/refractory acute myelogenous leukemia
Clin Epigenetics (2019) 11:106.
BACKGROUND: Guadecitabine is a novel DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor with improved pharmacokinetics and clinical activity in a subset of patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (r/r AML), but identification of this subset remains difficult. METHODS: To search for biomarkers of response, we measured genome-wide DNA methylation, mutations of 54 genes, and expression of a panel of 7 genes in pre-treatment samples from 128 patients treated at therapeutic doses in a phase I/II study. RESULTS: Response rate to guadecitabine was 17% (2 complete remission (CR), 3 CR with incomplete blood count recovery (CRi), or CR with incomplete platelets recovery (CRp)) in the phase I component and 23% (14 CR, 9 CRi/CRp) in phase II. There were no strong mutation or methylation predictors of response. Gene expression clustering defined a subset of patients (~ 20%) that had (i) high DNMT3B and low CDKN2B, CTCF, and CDA expression; (ii) enrichment for KRAS/NRAS mutations; (iii) frequent CpG island hypermethylation; (iv) low long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1) hypomethylation after treatment; and (v) resistance to guadecitabine in both phase I (response rate 0% vs. 33%, p = 0.07) and phase II components of the study (response rate 5% vs. 30%, p = 0.02). Multivariate analysis identified peripheral blood (PB) blasts and hemoglobin as predictors of response and cytogenetics, gene expression, RAS mutations, and hemoglobin as predictors of survival. CONCLUSIONS: A subset of patients (~ 20%) with r/r AML is unlikely to benefit from guadecitabine as a single agent. In the remaining 80%, guadecitabine is a viable option with a median survival of 8 months and a 2-year survival rate of 21%. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01261312 .
Publication Date: 2019-07-22.
PMCID: PMC6647096
Last updated on Monday, May 04, 2020