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Ready N, Hellmann MD, Awad MM, Otterson GA, Gutierrez M, Gainor JF, Borghaei H, Jolivet J, Horn L, Mates M, Brahmer J, Rabinowitz I, Reddy PS, Chesney J, Orcutt J, Spigel DR, Reck M, O'Byrne KJ, Paz-Ares L, Hu W, Zerba K, Li X, Lestini B, Geese WJ, Szustakowski JD, Green G, Chang H, Ramalingam SS
First-Line Nivolumab Plus Ipilimumab in Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (CheckMate 568): Outcomes by Programmed Death Ligand 1 and Tumor Mutational Burden as Biomarkers
J Clin Oncol (2019) 37:992-1000.
PURPOSE: CheckMate 568 is an open-label phase II trial that evaluated the efficacy and safety of nivolumab plus low-dose ipilimumab as first-line treatment of advanced/metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We assessed the association of efficacy with programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and tumor mutational burden (TMB). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred eighty-eight patients with previously untreated, recurrent stage IIIB/IV NSCLC received nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg every 6 weeks. The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR) in patients with 1% or more and less than 1% tumor PD-L1 expression. Efficacy on the basis of TMB (FoundationOne CDx assay) was a secondary end point. RESULTS: Of treated patients with tumor available for testing, 252 patients (88%) of 288 were evaluable for PD-L1 expression and 98 patients (82%) of 120 for TMB. ORR was 30% overall and 41% and 15% in patients with 1% or greater and less than 1% tumor PD-L1 expression, respectively. ORR increased with higher TMB, plateauing at 10 or more mutations/megabase (mut/Mb). Regardless of PD-L1 expression, ORRs were higher in patients with TMB of 10 or more mut/Mb (n = 48: PD-L1, >/= 1%, 48%; PD-L1, < 1%, 47%) versus TMB of fewer than 10 mut/Mb (n = 50: PD-L1, >/= 1%, 18%; PD-L1, < 1%, 5%), and progression-free survival was longer in patients with TMB of 10 or more mut/Mb versus TMB of fewer than 10 mut/Mb (median, 7.1 v 2.6 months). Grade 3 to 4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 29% of patients. CONCLUSION: Nivolumab plus low-dose ipilimumab was effective and tolerable as a first-line treatment of advanced/metastatic NSCLC. TMB of 10 or more mut/Mb was associated with improved response and prolonged progression-free survival in both tumor PD-L1 expression 1% or greater and less than 1% subgroups and was thus identified as a potentially relevant cutoff in the assessment of TMB as a biomarker for first-line nivolumab plus ipilimumab.
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Publication Date: 2019-04-20.
PMCID: PMC6494267
Last updated on Friday, August 14, 2020