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Lepore SJ, Collins BN, Coffman DL, Winickoff JP, Nair US, Moughan B, Bryant-Stephens T, Taylor D, Fleece D, Godfrey M
Kids Safe and Smokefree (KiSS) Multilevel Intervention to Reduce Child Tobacco Smoke Exposure: Long-Term Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial
Int J Environ Res Public Health (2018) In process.
BACKGROUND: Pediatricians following clinical practice guidelines for tobacco intervention (“Ask, Advise, and Refer” [AAR]) can motivate parents to reduce child tobacco smoke exposure (TSE). However, brief clinic interventions are unable to provide the more intensive, evidence-based behavioral treatments that facilitate the knowledge, skills, and confidence that parents need to both reduce child TSE and quit smoking. We hypothesized that a multilevel treatment model integrating pediatric clinic-level AAR with individual-level, telephone counseling would promote greater long-term (12-month) child TSE reduction and parent smoking cessation than clinic-level AAR alone. METHODS: Pediatricians were trained to implement AAR with parents during clinic visits and reminded via prompts embedded in electronic health records. Following AAR, parents were randomized to intervention (AAR + counseling) or nutrition education attention control (AAR + control). Child TSE and parent quit status were bioverified. RESULTS: Participants (n = 327) were 83% female, 83% African American, and 79% below the poverty level. Child TSE (urine cotinine) declined significantly in both conditions from baseline to 12 months (p = 0.001), with no between-group differences. The intervention had a statistically significant effect on 12-month bioverified quit status (p = 0.029): those in the intervention group were 2.47 times more likely to quit smoking than those in the control. Child age was negatively associated with 12-month log-cotinine (p = 0.01), whereas nicotine dependence was positively associated with 12-month log-cotinine levels (p = 0.001) and negatively associated with bioverified quit status (p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Pediatrician advice alone may be sufficient to increase parent protections of children from TSE. Integrating clinic-level intervention with more intensive individual-level smoking intervention is necessary to promote parent cessation.
Publication Date: 2018-06-12.
PMCID: PMC6025102
Last updated on Wednesday, July 08, 2020