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Ramos JD, Casey MF, Crabb SJ, Bamias A, Harshman LC, Wong YN, Bellmunt J, De Giorgi U, Ladoire S, Powles T, Pal SK, Niegisch G, Recine F, Alva A, Agarwal N, Necchi A, Vaishampayan UN, Rosenberg JE, Galsky MD, Yu EY, Risc Investigators
Venous thromboembolism in metastatic urothelial carcinoma or variant histologies: incidence, associative factors, and effect on survival
Cancer Med (2017) 6:186-194.
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in cancer patients. However, little is known about VTE risk in metastatic urothelial carcinoma or variant histologies (UC/VH). We sought to characterize the incidence, associative factors, including whether various chemotherapy regimens portend different risk, and impact of VTE on survival in metastatic UC/VH patients. Patients diagnosed with metastatic UC/VH from 2000 to 2013 were included in this multicenter retrospective, international study from 29 academic institutions. Cumulative and 6-month VTE incidence rates were determined. The association of first-line chemotherapy (divided into six groups) and other baseline characteristics on VTE were analyzed. Each chemotherapy treatment group and statistically significant baseline clinical characteristics were assessed in a multivariate, competing-risk regression model. VTE patients were matched to non-VTE patients to determine the impact of VTE on overall survival. In all, 1762 patients were eligible for analysis. There were 144 (8.2%) and 90 (5.1%) events cumulative and within the first 6 months, respectively. VTE rates based on chemotherapy group demonstrated no statistical difference when gemcitabine/cisplatin was used as the comparator. Non-urotheilal histology (SHR: 2.67; 95% CI: 1.72-4.16, P < 0.001), moderate to severe renal dysfunction (SHR: 2.12; 95% CI: 1.26-3.59, P = 0.005), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or CVD risk factors (SHR: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.49-3.45, P = 0.001) were associated with increased VTE rates. Overall survival was worse in patients with VTE (median 6.0 m vs. 10.2 m, P < 0.001). Thus, in metastatic UC/VH patients, VTE is common and has a negative impact on survival. We identified multiple associated potential risk factors, although different chemotherapy regimens did not alter risk.
Publication Date: 2017-01-01.
PMCID: PMC5269690
Last updated on Tuesday, June 05, 2018