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Solomos AC, Rall GF
Get It through Your Thick Head: Emerging Principles in Neuroimmunology and Neurovirology Redefine Central Nervous System "Immune Privilege"
ACS Chem Neurosci (2016) 7:435-41.
The central nervous system (CNS) coordinates all aspects of life, autonomic and sentient, though how it has evolved to contend with pathogenic infections remains, to a great degree, a mystery. The skull and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provide protection from blunt force contacts, and it was once thought that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was a fortress that restricted pathogen entry and limited inflammation. Recent studies, however, have caused a revision of this viewpoint: the CNS is monitored by blood-borne lymphocytes, but can use alternative strategies to prevent or resolve many pathogenic challenges. In this Review, we discuss emerging principles that indicate how the CNS is immunologically unique from peripheral tissues. We focus on developments that include glymphatics, recently characterized brain lymphatic vessels, distinctions in innate and adaptive immune strategies, novel points of entry for neurotropic viruses, and, finally, how the periphery can influence CNS homeostasis and immune responses within the brain. Collectively, these attributes demand a re-evaluation of immunity in the brain: not privileged, but distinct.
Publication Date: 2016-02-18.
Last updated on Thursday, July 09, 2020