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Irrinki KM, Mallilankaraman K, Thapa RJ, Chandramoorthy HC, Smith FJ, Jog NR, Gandhirajan RK, Kelsen SG, Houser SR, May MJ, Balachandran S, Madesh M
Requirement of FADD, NEMO, and BAX/BAK for Aberrant Mitochondrial Function in Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Necrosis
Molecular and Cellular Biology (2011) 31:3745-3758.
Abstract
Necroptosis represents a form of alternative programmed cell death that is dependent on the kinase RIP1. RIP1-dependent necroptotic death manifests as increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mitochondria and is accompanied by loss of ATP biogenesis and eventual dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential. Here, we show that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced necroptosis requires the adaptor proteins FADD and NEMO. FADD was found to mediate formation of the TNF-alpha-induced pronecrotic RIP1-RIP3 kinase complex, whereas the I kappa B Kinase (IKK) subunit NEMO appears to function downstream of RIP1-RIP3. Interestingly, loss of RelA potentiated TNF-alpha-dependent necroptosis, indicating that NEMO regulates necroptosis independently of NF-kappa B. Using both pharmacologic and genetic approaches, we demonstrate that the overexpression of antioxidants alleviates ROS elevation and necroptosis. Finally, elimination of BAX and BAK or overexpression of Bcl-x(L) protects cells from necroptosis at a later step. These findings provide evidence that mitochondria play an amplifying role in inflammation-induced necroptosis.
Note
Publication Date: 2011-09-01.
PMCID: PMC3165716
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