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Yao KS, Shida S, Selvakumaran M, Zimmerman R, Simon E, Schick J, Haas NB, Balke M, Ross H, Johnson SW, O'Dwyer PJ
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is a determinant of hypoxia-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines
Clinical Cancer Research (2005) 11:7264-7272.
Abstract
Hypoxia contributes to cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation resistance and may play a role in the efficacy of antiangiogenesis cancer therapy. We have generated a series of cell lines derived from the colon adenocarcinoma models HT29 and HCT116 by exposing cells in vitro to repeated sublethal periods of profound hypoxia. These cell lines have altered sensitivity to hypoxia-induced apoptosis: those derived from HT29 are resistant, whereas those from HCT116 are more susceptible. We used cDNA selected subtractive hybridization to identify novel genes mediating sensitivity to hypoxia-induced apoptosis and isolated macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) from the hypoxia-conditioned cell lines. MIF expression correlates with susceptibility of the cell lines to apoptosis. In hypoxia-resistant cells, the induction of apoptosis by hypoxia can be restored by the addition of exogenous recombinant MIF protein, suggesting that resistance may result in part from down-regulation of M IF production possibly through an autocrine loop. Inhibition of MIF using small interfering RNA in the susceptible lines conferred resistance to hypoxia-induced cell death. The relative expression of MIF in the hypoxia-conditioned cells implanted s.c. in severe combined immunodeficient mice in vivo was similar to that observed in vitro. In an analysis of 12 unrelated colon tumor cell lines, MIF expression and response to hypoxia varied widely. Cell lines in which MIF was inducible by hypoxia were more sensitive to oxaliplatin. In human colon tumor specimens analyzed by immunohistochemistry, MIF expression was similarly variable. There was no detectable expression of MIF in normal colon mucosa or adenoma but positive staining in all carcinomas tested. Taken together, these data indicate that MIF may be a determinant of hypoxia-induced apoptosis in vitro and that its variable expression in human colon cancers may indicate a functional role in vivo. We suggest that MIF express ion in colorectal cancer may be a marker of susceptibility to therapie s that may depend on induction of hypoxia, possibly including antiangiogenic therapy.
Note
Publication Date: 2005-10-15.
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